MANAGING HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS SEQUEL To NATIONAL TRANSFORMATION

MANAGING HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS SEQUEL To NATIONAL TRANSFORMATION

 

This study was set to investigate Managing Human Capital Development in Ebonyi State public secondary schools as a proviso for national transformation. The study adopted ex-post facto design. Two research questions and hypotheses respectively guided the study. The population of the study consisted of 1514 secondary school teachers out of which a sample of 227 teachers was drawn and used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire titled” Managing Human Capital Development Questionnaire (MHCDQ)”.The instrument was validated and tested for reliability. Data collected were analysed using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation coefficient. Results showed that attendance to in-service training and participation in seminars/workshops have significant relationship with national transformation. Recommendations were made among which was that teachers should be regularly sponsored to in-service training programmes.

Keywords: Managing, Human Capital Development, National Transformation.

 

 MANAGING HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS SEQUEL To NATIONAL TRANSFORMATION

Introduction

       Education has remained an important instrument for national transformation. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) stated that education will continue to be highly rated in the national development plans because education is the most important instrument of change, as any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to be preceded by an educational revolution. Education therefore, should at any point in time respond to issues of national transformation.

Since education is dynamic in nature, operators of the system especially teachers must respond to changes to be able to effectively transmit useful educational practices to the learners. As stated by Ezeuwa (2009), attainment of the goals of education greatly depends on whether there are proper teachers to practically implement the curriculum at different levels of education. This is equally because “no educational system can rise above the level of its teachers” (FRN, 2004).

The teaching workforce mainly constitutes the human capital of the school system. This human capital needs to be managed to not only cope but to squarely catch up with current academic challenges. Since we now live in a world where a lot of changes and innovations especially in the area of technology have become an integral part of our culture and cannot be overlooked, there is the need not to allow the human capital (teachers) of our school system to remain stagnant but to make necessary improvements needed for national transformation. The teacher has always been adjudged central and paramount in the educative process. Mkpa (1987:344) presented a comprehensive description of a teacher who is capable of imparting the right type of knowledge that will lead to national transformation as:

Someone who went through and completed

a formal training institution, a planned programme

of training, among other areas in the principle and             practice of education and was exposed to an                          observed period of internship either after or as part

of the period of training.

 

Successful Human capital development is basically a function of good training emanating from proper management. For the schools to effectively carryout educational programmes necessary for producing citizens well equipped for national transformation, managing human capital development stands as a prerequisite. This paper is prompted by the worry that several secondary school leavers especially those unable to transit to higher education level roam about in search of white collar jobs instead of engaging their hands in entrepreneurial practices that require skills as can be acquired in the course of secondary education. Teachers have been blamed for not teaching very well. Ezeuwa (2009) blamed poor performance of secondary school leavers on teacher factor. The problem of this study therefore is to identify how human capital development can be managed in Ebonyi State public secondary schools to enhance national transformation.

In order to appropriately address the topical issues of managing human capital development in Ebonyi State public secondary schools, it seems necessary to start from making conceptual clarifications.

Concept of Managing, Human Capital Development and National transformation.

 

The word managing is a verb in continuous tense derived from the noun ‘management’ which, Hornby (2005) defined as the act or skill of dealing with people or situations in a successful way.

Obi (2003) described management as involving strategy, innovation, initiating about change, creative problem solving and decision making, actively seeking out alternatives and opportunities, reformulating goals and priorities, redeploying resources, negotiating, resolving conflicts, dynamic or active leadership, diplomacy, statesmanship and a high degree of risk taking and entrepreneurship. Going by those definitions, management can be viewed as the interactional process involving a sequence of co-ordinated events such as planning, organizing, co-ordinating and leading so as to achieve desired organizational goals using available resources.

Scultz (1993) described human capital development as a key element in improving a firm assets and employees in order to increase productivity as well as sustain competitive advantage. In a related explanation, Rastogi (2000) stated that human capital development is an important input for organization especially for employees’ continuous improvement mainly on knowledge, skills and abilities. Human capital development therefore refers to the knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes acquired by individuals which facilitate the creation of personal and organizational social and economic well being.

National transformation according to Anyim (2012) has to do with rapid incremental, changes in the development indices of a country such as, comparatively high Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and High Human Development Index (HDI) achieved through deliberate intervention policies, appropriately and faithfully implemented. National transformation refers to positive growth and modernization. Problems of infrastructure and conditions of living of the citizens are addressed in national transformation. It means improvement in the economic, social and cultural conditions of different communities, states and ethnic groups of the country.

Managing human capital development can therefore be seen as a process of evolving and implementing relevant training programmes whereby the teachers are equipped with professional artistry needed to improve on their status in such a way that they would appropriately adjust education to the changing needs of the teachers and their environment. The objectives of teacher education have been outlined to include:

  • Ø To encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers;
  • Ø To help teachers to fit into the society at large and to enhance their commitment to objectives;
  • Ø To provide teachers with intellectual and professional background to any changing situation not only in the life of their country but in the wider society; and
  • Ø To enhance teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession (FRN, 2004:39)

The objectives as stated imply that managing human capital development involves the use of strategies such as in-serve training, attendance to seminars and workshops, participating in academic and professional conferences especially those that relate to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and entrepreneurial skills acquisition in the public secondary schools in Ebonyi State. It is essential as this will help to equip the teachers with ethical, intellectual and emotional capabilities so that they will be able to adapt to the transformational needs of the country.

Today there is need for national transformation which can only be addressed by knowledge of prevalence scientific enterprise. The bank of knowledge, which the teacher has acquired, seems inadequate to address these transformational needs. A situational imperative has therefore arisen posing an undeniable challenge to the teacher to keep pace with prevalent knowledge explosion to avoid lapsing into rapid professional obsolescence (Maduabum, 2006). In the words of Ajayi (1982), without planned and well managed programmes for upgrading their works the teachers may remain isolated from innovative practices and procedures. Oyekan(2000) observed that teachers are the most important refined human species that skilfully identify, develop and nurture the potentials of productive citizenry for meaningful creation of wealth, pleasure and services, which will sustain quality life. Notably, those are attributes of national transformation.

It is against this background that this study is set to find out whether managing human capital development in Ebonyi State public secondary schools can be a proviso for national transformation.

Research Questions

       The following research questions guided the study.

1.    How does attendance to in-service training by teachers      affect national transformation?

2.    How does participation in seminars/workshops by teachers affect national transformation?

Hypotheses

       Two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance were used for the study.

1.    Attendance to in-service training programmes does not      significantly relate to national transformation.

2.    Participation in seminars/workshops by teachers does not   significantly relate to national transformation.

Method

Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. This is because it focused on the relationship between variables – managing Human Capital Development and National Transformation. The study covered all the 148 public secondary schools in Ebonyi State. The population of the study consisted of 1,514 teachers from Ebonyi State public secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 15% of the population which was 227 teachers as sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire titled “Managing Human capital Development Questionnaire (MHCDQ)”. The questionnaire which had a 20 item statements was validated by experts in Educational Administration and Planning and also Measurement and Evaluation from Ebonyi State University. The instrument was tested for reliability using Cronbach Alpha and it yielded values of 0.64 and 0.73 for its two sections. 227 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to respondents through research assistants. All the 227 copies were returned. The data were analysed using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient.

Result

Table 1: Analysis of the Relationship between Attendance to            in-service training and National Transformation.

 

N – 227

Variables

∑x

∑y

∑x2

∑y2

 

∑xy

 

Cal r

 

 

 

 

 

Attendance to in-service training

1226

2328

3412

0.643
National Transformation

999

2169

P < 0.05, df = 225,  critical r = 0.138.

 

Result in table one indicated that the calculated r-value of 0.643 was greater than the critical r-value of 0.138 given rise to the rejection of the hypothesis. It then implies that attendance to in-service training significantly relates to national transformation.

Table 2: Analysis of the Relationship between Participation in           seminars/workshops and National Transformation.

N – 227

Variables

∑x

∑y

∑x2

∑y2

 

∑xy

 

Cal r

Participation inseminar/workshops 1231 2299 3426 0.638
National Transformation 999 2169

P < 0.05, df = 225, critical r = 0.138

 

Result in table two revealed that the calculated r-value of 0.638 was greater than the critical r-value of 0.138 leading to the rejection of the hypothesis. This implies that teachers’ participation in seminar/workshops had positive relationship with national transformation.

Discussion

       The first finding of the study is that attendance to in-service training programmes by teachers significantly relates to national transformation. This is because during in-service training the teacher up grades his knowledge, skills, aptitude and attitude and becomes properly equipped for educational services that usher in national transformation. It is in consideration of the importance of in-service training that Obanya (2004) regretted that among other ways in which teachers have been unfairly treated is to have treated teaching as the only profession in which continuing self-improvement was not necessary. Ajayi (1982) asserted that without planned programmes for upgrading their works, the teachers may remain isolated from innovative practices and procedures. Teachers need to continuously upgrade themselves through retraining programmes to avoid lapsing into professional obsolescence which is inimical to national transformation. Ezeuwa (2009) equally observed that staff training and re-training contribute significantly to effective job performance.

The second finding of the study reveals that regular participation in seminars/workshops by teachers will significantly help them to acquire knowledge, skills and competencies needed in their job. These skills will enable the teachers to offer quality teachings that would enrich the students and adequately equip them for national transformation. Ndu (1999) opined that a new knowledge acquired through regular seminars/workshops compel the professional teacher to need a refresh and renew the skills and attitudes he had earlier developed. Achimugu (2000) maintained that teachers who have opportunities to participate in seminars/workshops interact positively with their colleagues, learn new skills and become well equipped for their teaching jobs. Participating in seminars/workshops is therefore necessary for professional development of the teacher who is expected to be a front liner in the process of national transformation.

Conclusion

Managing human capital development has been described as a process of evolving and implementing relevant training programmes whereby teachers are equipped with professional artistry needed to improve their performance. These programmes may be in form of in-service training, seminars/workshops and similar interactions geared towards improving job performance. The paper found that attendance to in-service training and teacher participation in other retraining programmes have relationship with national transformation. The teacher needs to regularly upgrade his knowledge in order to effectively cope with the present time knowledge explosion and to impart current relevant skills to the students who are also agents of national transformation.

Recommendations For The Article MANAGING HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS SEQUEL To NATIONAL TRANSFORMATION

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made

  • Teachers should be exposed to regular in-service training programmes by the government. Relevant agencies such as Secondary Education Board (SEB) and State Ministry of Education should ensure that there is a well articulated policy on staff re-training in order to have on ground teachers whose activities can contribute to national transformation.
  • A school-based training programmes should be introduced in Ebonyi state school system especially at the secondary level to enable secondary school teachers be up-to-date in knowledge and skill.
  • Secondary school teachers should be sponsored to participate in academic or professional seminars/workshop which will enhance increase in their knowledge and predispose them for national transformation. Both the government and other stakeholders in education can take up the sponsorship.

MANAGING HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS SEQUEL To NATIONAL TRANSFORMATION

References

Achimugu, L. (2000). The agonies of Nigerian teachers; NUT,     friend or foe? Port Harcourt: Baron Press Limited.

 

Ajayi, K. (1982). Improving the performance of teachers in        schools: some strategies and tactics. Journal of Educational Studies 1(1), 59.

Anyim, P. (2012). Nigeria in Transformation. A paper presented at executive intelligent Management Course at the   Institute for security studies. Abuja 2nd February.

Enter your email address to getExtra Gist by Mail. Its Free!::

Delivered by Gist Extra

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>