Teaching And Learning – Effect Of Improvised Instructional material in teaching

Teaching And Learning – Effect Of Improvised Instructional material in teaching

Education is the main factor that separates man from mere animality found in man. Education may simply be talked of as the process by a person acquires knowledge to live well in his society.

A good understanding of the concept of education is derived from two approaches categorized as the broad sense and strict sense source. Education in the broad sense embraces all those experiences of the individual through which knowledge is acquired, the intellect enlightened and the will strengthened. In the strict sense, the term education is employed to designate the consciously planned and systematically applied training carried on through the various social agencies especially the school sense. This sense implies teaching, learning and discipline. The culmination of the teaching and learning process is the introduction of the individual to the moral life of the community and transmitting the individual the intellectual content of civilization source.

It can only be said that education has been achieved when it has involved the active participates of the learner upon whom the whole idea of teaching and learning rests upon source. Farrant in Eluu (2005) describes education as the total process of human learning by which knowledge is imparted, faculties trained and skills, developed”.

It involves leading somebody out into new knowledge and experience for his growth and development which involves all mans activities to enable him realize himself and live fully as a human being. According to Njoku (1997), an individual is being educated to have the right kind of values and behaviour, acquire skill, be versatite having a broad outlook, be literate to read and write, be able to handle numbers and do some calculations, be able to perform his civic duties, be sociable and enhance peaceful co-existence, have an enquiring mind, respect the law, recognize dignity of labour, be dynamic and innovative not static or conservative.

In education, there are three domains, which must be attained if such an educations is to claim that it is sufficiently balanced. These includes the:

i. Cognitive domain (ii) The effective domain and (iii) The psychomotor domain. These domains are achievable through an effective teacher and a sufficient supply and use of improvised materials. One of the monumental problems facing Nigeria as a developing nation is Education. Most people think that Education is costly and therefore avoid schooling but thanks to the government that has to make read and costly budgets that would involve enlightenment and free education, which the government of Nigeria and Anambra State in particular, has adopted as an instrument for excellence. Many philosophical issues are raised, which find ramification in the school the teacher, the curriculum, materials and facilities by who? It is through the positive impact of the above factors the broad aim and objective of educations find their fulfillment and actualizations.

One of the most important inputs to the effective teaching and learning of biology is the use of teaching materials but in this area of economic depression, Awka and Njikoka urban, the teaching and learning of biology at the secondary school level is generally being carried out through take and chalk method.

Onwuka in Odo, Ede, and Ezike (1998) stated that one of the most important tasks of teachers is to arrange and present their lessons, topics or learning experiences in such a manner that they would have meaning to the learner both presently and in the future while striving to achieve this major objective teachers also bear mind that all done in the name of education is expected to bring about changes in human behaviour, attitude skill and belief. The use of teaching aids and instructional materials helps students learn faster, comprehensively and make the actual teaching job easier and time saving. Due to their absence of the conventional materials, efforts are being made by biology teachers to improve biology education by improvising teaching materials but the actual influence of the use are yet to be determined. In other words, the Contribution of the use of Improvised Instructional materials to the realization of the objective of science in some urban areas are yet to be felt.

The practice of improvisation has been with us all this while but we need to clear our mind on what it really is. NTI (1990) sees Improvisation as a technique of originating a totally new tool, instruments, device or modifying an already existing one for the purpose of teaching and learning.

In his own words, Igwe (2000) sees Improvisation as the making or inventing a piece of science teaching equipment in emergency. It is and essential part of laboratory management for the purpose of maximizing the use of the available resources.

Improvisation materials enables research for cheaper, faster method of making teachings and learning process easier for the teacher and student. This is because students learn best when the subject matter is brought practically to their senses, since the more the senses are stimulated, the more a person learns, and the more he retains. In line with this, science teachers should exhibit resourcefulness by Improvising materials in place of the standardized ones. Even the collection of these teaching materials by the pupils themselves is in itself rewarding and a stimulating learning source experience. Improvised material when used effectively presents facts and information, they arouse students interest and enthusiasm, principles and processes, they impress pictures and images, vividly in the mind and memory of the learners and they help in the transfer of learning.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Improvisation is a case of making available substitutes in science materials in cases of emergency or lack in the process of teaching and learning of science the use of such materials has been researched to be useful to the teaching and learning of science as it influences the activities of the teacher as well as the interest of the students. But their availability has not been fully encouraging, hence, most teachers do improvise the materials while other do not. Even those who do improvise them have flaws in their processes of improvisation some other teachers prefer standardized materials to improvised ones. Through, teachers do teach effectively with the chalk and talk method, how has this brought a change in interest. Understanding, commitment and zeal of students in learning and widening the knowledge of the teacher in teaching biology. This researcher feels that the teaching biology in secondary schools in Njikoka urban of Anambra State would be hindered seriously if improvisation of instructional materials were not encouraged.

Again would the improvisation of science materials actually produce the desired influence in the teaching and learning of biology to necessitate its adoption by biology teachers. This is the rationals behind the choice of the topic “Effect of improvised material on the teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools in NJikoka urban of Anambra State

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Specifically, this study is aimed at:

1. Determining the extent of use of improvised materials, by biology teachers in secondary schools in Njikoka urban.

2. As certaining the extent improvisation of teaching materials has enhanced teaching methods in biology teachers.

3. Determining if improvised teachings materials have influenced students attitude towards biology in secondary schools.

4. Discovering if improvised materials are preferred over the standardized one.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research aims at producing results and adding values to teachers, students and the society at large. On the part of the students, they will be in a better position to access the usefulness or otherwise of their involvement in the improvisation of teaching materials for biology lessons. This will go a long way to make them become more interested in the activities of improvisation and also be able to handle and preserve improvised materials better. In addition these findings will enable teachers and students appreciate the usefulness or otherwise of their environment as it concerns their performance in biology examination and total living.

On the part of the teachers, they will be in a better position to justify or otherwise, the time, effort and even money they invest in improvising biology teaching materials. The finding well also guide their subsequent steps or strategies towards enhancing better biology teaching with regards to improvisation of teaching materials. On the society at large, the findings of this study will enlighten the society on the value of the environment. This will enhance better preservation and protection of the environment. The findings of this study will review the usefulness and value things in the environment from what science teaching materials are improvised. Generally therefore, the finding of this study will guide policy makers, educations, curriculum planners and all concerned with biology education review, to re-affirm on withdraw their individual views or collective views about improvisation of biology teaching and learning of materials.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study was limited to SS III students in secondary school in Njikoka urban of Anambra State. It is also focused on the influence of improvised material in teaching biology

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions have been formulated to guide this study.

1. What is the extent of use improvised materials by biology teacher in secondary school in Njikoka urban?

2. To what extent has improvisation of teaching materials enhance teaching belong in Njikoka urban?

3. How has improvisation of teaching materials in Biology influenced students attitude towards biology in Njoikoka urban?

4. To what extent are improvised materials preferred over the standardized ones?

1.7 HYPOTHESIS

The following null hypotheses have been formulated to guide the study.

Ho1¬¬ There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female teachers on improvisation of biology teaching materials.

Ho¬2 There is no significant difference in the mean responses of student who use improvised materials with that use the standardized ones.

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals on the different reviewed related literature. The presentation of the work is made under the following sub-headings:

Meaning of improvisation

Type of improvisation

Needs for improvisation

Basic consideration in improvisation

Influence of improvised materials Biology teaching and learning guides on improvisation

Place of improvisation in teacher.

Education curriculum

Advantages and disadvantages of improvisation

Summary of reviewed literature.

2.1 MEANING OF IMPROVISATION

improvisation is science dates back to the genesis of experimental science when the earliest pioneering scientists had originate both their ideas and the methods needed to empirically demonstrate and authenticate their validity (Soyibo in Stan 41st Annual conference proceeding, 2000) still according to Stan 41st Annual conference proceedings (2000), improvisation in science, technology and mathematics education is the preparation and use of materials and equipment obtainable from the local environment for the enhancement of the effectiveness of teaching and learning. Science, technology and mathematics teachers have different attitudes towards the use of improvised local equipment and materials for their teaching. Inyang (1997) he acknowledges the preference of teaches use of talk and chalk method.

According to Igwe (2003) improvisation is the making or inventing of a piece of science teaching equipment in emergency it is an essential part of laboratory management for the purpose of maximizing the use of the available resources.

Improvisation is describable in the following instances:

a. When the improvised material would improve the lesson’s effectiveness.

b. When the locally available materials age available for use

c. When improvised materials would serve the same function as the standardized one

NTI (1990) sees improvisation an as technique of originating a totally new tool, instrument, material device or modifying an already existing one for a particular purpose. Improvisation is a very important techniques in all human enterprise. It can very much referred to as resourcefulness and it is a very important aspect of our educational practice if it? School be effective in our prevailing condition.

2.2 TYPES OF IMPROVISATIONAL

Ofoefuna (1999), points out that we have two main types of improvisation these are:

i. Improvisation by substitution, where an already existing local material is used in place of equipment that is not available.

ii. The other is improvisation by construction in this case a teacher or the student constructs a new material entirely to teach his lesson, when the required material or equipment is not available.

Igwe (2005) while supporting improvisation went further to discuss the types of improvisation. In doing this he said that the improvisation of the basic equipment for teaching biology can be through two main way.

By role substitution

By role simulation

2.3 ROLE SUBSTITUTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

This method involves the slight modification or adaptation or the original subject in order to make it perform new function in the laboratory. Among the various examples is the Bunsen busner, which could be substitute with the kerosene stove. Old newspaper could also substitute the import plant press with a heavy support such as a weighty piece of wood or heavy metal incorporated to provide the desired pressure. Imported reagent bottles can be substituted with a clear colour less soft drink bottle with a plastic cork available in local market.

2.4 ROLE SIMULATION

This involves the construction of items or apparatus. It is necessitated by an emergency or a need that cannot be met for reasons of cost and availability. This may be accomplished by using direct labour, locally available materials and skills. In some cases, an apparatus has to be improvised if the specification of the conventional one does not serve the desired purpose of the experiment.

2.5 NEED FOR IMPROVISATION

In an ideal world, all science students would be taught in small classes held in well-equipped laboratories. In the absence of those well-equipped laboratories, the place of practical activities cannot be over emphasized, yet those materials required for teaching of science are very much in short supply as (Adebinpe 1997) lamented that these is a total or partial absent, in adequacy of the science teaching resources and gross inadequate finances most especially for the purchase of science equipment, galloping inflation using enrolment of students, general down ward trend in the nations economy, poor maintenance culture and at times attitudes of some school heads towards science and science equipment call for efforts at making science teaching and learning what it is supposed to be

With all these heinous problems, it seems that the best option is the improvisation of science teaching materials in the classroom teacher and even students, improvisation becomes imperative in a situation where there are scarce resources and facilitates. The Nigeria school system today is experiencing a boost in population explosion, giving use to greater demand for classroom laboratory facilities and equipment with limited government resources, with limited government resources, the teachers ingenuity to improvise becomes tasking for learning to be effective and productive.

2.6 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN IMPROVISATION

On embarking on any improvisation in the teaching and learning process certain basic pedagical consideration are necessary.

Some of these considerations according to Madubum (1996) include:

i. What is to be taught

ii. The objectives of the lesson

iii. The background knowledge of the learners

iv. The durability of the improvised materials

v. The cost advantage of the improvised material

The degree of sophistication of the improvised materials will be determined by what is to be taught and the objective of the lesson.

Knowledge of the students academic background would provide the teacher with insight to whether the improvised materials would appropriate to learn the task at hand or not. It is also necessary to give consideration to the durability of the improvised materials. A durable material on a long-term basic reduces cost as well as saves time and labour, in the cost advantage, it may be more beneficial to acquire an already existing cheaper factory made material than to spend time and labour to embark on the improvisation of such materials.

2.7 INFLUENCE OF IMPROVISATION MATERIALS IN BIOLOGY TEACHING AND LEARNING

Improvisation becomes imperative in situation where there are scarce resources and facilities. The Nigerian school system today is experiencing a boost in population giving size to greater demand for classroom facilities and equipment. With limited government resources the teachers ingenuity to improvise becomes tasking for learning to be effective and productive. According to Stan 40th anniversary conference proceedings (1997), some influence improvised materials would have on biology teaching learning process are:

i. Improvised materials provide a cognitive bridge between abstraction and reality to students.

ii. Improvisation undertaken by the teacher enables him de think and research for cheaper, better and faster methods of making the teaching and learning process easier for students.

iii. Improvisation presents next to real situation to students in the absence of the real materials.

iv. Improvisation saves cost and in addition the teacher and the student make positive efforts towards effective instruction.

2.8 GUIDES ON IMPROVISATION

Having known what improvisation really is it becomes necessary to have guides for people embarking on it. In other words, improvised materials should possess certain qualities and these are:

1. Appropriateness of teaching aids to the age of the learners for whom they are meant.

2. Its clarity in illustration and simplification of concepts.

3. Its adequacy in size.

4. Its relevance to the lesson they are meant to serve.

5. It should be interesting to the learners, durable and improvisable among others.

Boulind (967) stated that when the desirable is not available then the available should becomes the alternative if it performs the same or similar functions as the desirable. It should be borne in mind that resource materials do not achieve any of the attributed values on their own. The usefulness depends on what the teacher makes out of them ie the influence made on the students by the teacher with the materials.

2.9 PLACE OF IMPROVISATION IN TEACHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM

In order to achieve the desirable ideals of improvisation, science educators, Soyibo, Eshict and inyang (1997) strongly advocated for the provision of compulsory courses on improvisation of science equipment in pre-science teachers curriculum. Considering the NCE Level for example, the latest edition of the minimum standards for colleges of education published by the NCCE (National council for college of education, 1996) provided courses on improvisation in various subjects. Similar courses exist in the university for the 1st degree level of preparing science, technology and mathematics teachers. In some cases improvisation forms the first degree project work.

2.10 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IMPROVISATION

ADVANTAGES OF IMPROVISATION

Some advantages of improvisation according to Ofoefuna and Eya (1999) are:

1. It enables the learners and teachers make proper use of their environment this is because in improvisation we mainly make use of the available materials in the environment.

2. The use of local materials reduces cost in terms of financial expenditure in buying ready-made materials.

3. The development of resource materials for instruction can lead to discovery of new knowledge.

4. When parent or learner or community members assist in improvising a resource material such a donating personal material, this will improve school-community relationship.

5. They provide experience not easily obtained through other means and contribute to efficiency, depth and variety of learning.

6. Improvisation helps to bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and practicability.

7. When the teacher and learners succeed in improvising an instructional material, there is a high sense of achievement and they are encouraged to higher exploits

8. Talents in the students are discovered

DISADVANTAGES OF IMPROVISATION

A major problem militating against improvisation in Nigeria is lack of adequate professional training of staff, madua (1996) noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perserverance on the part of the teacher” such skill are only realizable through well-planned training programmes on improvisation.

Another factor that would hinder the realization of the objectives of improvisation is lack of funds: Yoloye (1997) noted that improvisation whether they cost less than standardized manufactured ones or not cost money. This money is usually not readily available or teachers. Improvisation can also expose teacher and students to some-hazards.

2.11 SUMMARY OF REVIEWED LITERATURE

In summary, we get to under standard that improvisation as has been described by many authors is the inventing of new materials, or the modifying of already existing ones for the purpose of carrying out hand is the material already made by professionals which most laboratory attendants, teachers, and even students buy from the market. Improvisation has been noted to have some desirable qualities like; improving the lesson’s effectiveness, substituting the standardized ones that are not available.

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals primarily with the procedure for carrying out the study. This is discussed under the following sub-headings:

Design of the study;

Area of the study;

Population of the study;

Sample and sampling technique;

Instrument used for data collection;

Validation of the instrument

Reliability of the instrument

Administration of instrument

Method of Data Collection

Method of Data Analysis

3.2 DESIGN OF THE STUDY

The design of study adopted for this research is the descriptive survey design, which entails studying the subject by collecting, and analyzing data from a group selected from among the subject (area).

The selected groups were considered representative of the entire subject.

3.3 AREA OF THE STUDY

This study is to be carried out in NJikoka urban of Anambra State.

The areas include Oziboka L.G.A, Njikoka L.G.A, and Awka L. G.A

3.4 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The population for this research includes all the SSIII biology teachers and students in Njikoka urban of Anambra State in all 900 students and 67 teachers.

3.5 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The technique will adopt for the study simple random sampling technique in selecting the one hundred and twenty (120) students and twenty (20) teachers, which served as the samples. Twelve (12) students would be sampled from each school while two (2) biology teachers were selected from each school.

3.6 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

The instrument employed in this study was the structured questionnaire titled influence of improvised materials in teaching and learning of Biology (11MTLB). It has two sections-A and B. Selection A, concerned with information on personal data and section B, the main body of the questionnaire concerned with the actual data needed for the study.

The items would be organized based on the research questions. The modified 4-point Likert rating scale would be used ie, strongly agreed, disagreed, strongly disagreed, the option were weighted as 4,3,2,1, for positive items and 1,2,3, for negative items.

The items were grouped in four sections with 25 question in all, which the respondents were expected to tick in the accepted answers.

3.7 VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

The instrument were face validated by my supervisor and two other experts, one in the area of biology measurement and evaluation. They made modifications and corrections that were effected accordingly see appendices II and I

3.8 RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

The instrument would be-tested for internal consistency on twenty (20) respondents outside my sample. The data collected were subjected to reliability analysis using Cronbach Alpha A Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.796 was obtained for the students and a coefficient of 0.705 was obtained for the teachers. Both instruments were hence adjudged to be reliable.

3.9 ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

The questionnaires would be administered directly by the researcher to teachers and student and would personally collected their. The responses were then collected and used for data analysis.

3.10 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

This research questions would be answered using the mean and standard deviation while the hypothesis would tested using the test analysis, where the formulas are hereby stated.

=Summation of all X¬¬s

N= total number of respondents

N= total number of respondents.

X=variables/items in the distribution

——————————————–

N¬1+N2-2 =degree of freedom for both group.

3.11 DECISION RULE

Any item whose mean is less than 2.5 was not accepted while an item with a mean of 2.5 and above was accepted. To obtain the cut-off –point of 2.5; the weighted options were used in calculated as follows:

 

=2.5

PRESENTATION OF RESULT

The results of data analysis got from this research were displayed in tabular forms in line with the research questions as shown below.

RESEARCH QUESTION ONE

Improvised materials are used in teaching biology in my school.

S/N STATEMENT ITEM X SD DECISION

1 Teachers have more confidence in themselves with teaching. 2.85 1.09 Accepted

2 Teachers avoid topics that require the use of improvised materials. 2.70 1.22 Accepted

3 Teachers are able to teach every topic with ease. 2.75 1.21 Accepted

4 Teachers are no longer anxious to teach biology because of topics that require improvisation 3.40 0.75 Accepted

5 Teachers don’t use improvised materials at all 2.85 1.09 Accepted

6 Teachers are no longer conversant with the standardized materials 1.75 1.16 Accepted

AVERAGE MEAN 2.71 1.08 ACCEPTED

 

Based on the result in table 1, the average mean on the extent of improvised materials used in teaching biology by teachers is 2.71 with a standard deviation of 1.08. this shows that the respondents agree that there is a high use of improvised materials by teachers in teaching biology in secondary schools in Njikoka Urban of Anambra State.

RESEARCH QUESTION TWO

Improvised of teaching materials enhance teaching methods in biology.

S/N STATEMENT ITEM X SD DECISION

1 The use of improvised materials make my job interesting as a biology teacher. 2.75 1.21 Accepted

2 The use of improvised materials may lead to the ignorance of the standardized ones. 2.25 1.21 Accepted

3 Improvised material takes much time, energy, money and therefore does not encourage use of simple methods of teaching 2.25 1.21 Accepted

4 Use of improvised materials make students lazy and dull in class. 2.85 1.23 Accepted

5 Improvised material does not influence my teaching method. 2.75 1.21 Accepted

6 Improvised materials determines the teaching method the teacher will use. 1.95 1.23 Rejected

AVERAGE MEAN 2.50 1.21 ACCEPTED

 

Based on the result in table 2, the average mean response on the improvised of teaching materials enhance teaching methods in biology is 2.50 with a standard deviation of 1.21. this shows that the respondents agree that improvised materials influence biology teaching method in Njikoka Urban of Anambra state.

RESEARCH QUESTION THREE

Improvised materials influenced students attitude towards biology.

S/N STATEMENT ITEM X SD DECISION

1 Improvised materials makes students dodge biology classes. 3.45 0.70 Accepted

2 Male students tend to improvise more than the female students 2.88 1.03 Accepted

3 Girls feel shy to improvise materials before their colleagues . 1.58 1.03 Rejected

4 Boys feel shy to improvise materials before their female colleagues. 2.03 1.22 Rejected

5 Female students are more active in the process of improvisation than the males. 2.31 1.19 Rejected

6 Improvisation is tedious, so students hate biology. 2.31 1.19 Rejected

AVERAGE MEAN 2.42 1.06 REJECTED

 

Based on the result on table 3, the average materials on students’ attitude is 2.42 with a standard deviation of 1.06. This shows that improvised materials do not influence very positively students’ attitude towards biology in secondary school in Njikoka Urban or Anambra state.

RESEARCH QUESTION FOUR

Improvised materials are preferred over the standardized ones.

S/N STATEMENT ITEM X SD DECISION

1 The use of improvised materials make students lose cognizance of the standardized ones 3.40 0.75 Accepted

2 The use of improvised materials save cost at times in purchasing than the standardized ones. 2.85 1.09 Accepted

3 The use of improvised materials produces more understanding than the standardized ones. 1.75 1.16 Rejected

4 The use of improvised materials makes students and teachers research more. 1.95 1.23 Rejected

5 The use of improvisation with time is eliminating the use of standardized materials. 2.25 1.21 Rejected

6 The use of improvised materials does not produce better result than the standardized one. 2.25 1.21 Rejected

AVERAGE MEAN 2.41 1.11 REJECTED

 

Based on the result on table 4, the average mean for the responses on the preference of improvised materials over the standardized ones is 2.41 with a standard deviation of 1.11. This shows that improvised materials is not preferred by teachers and students over the standardized ones but availability of any can serve any purpose.

HYPOTHESES RESULTS

Ho1 There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female teachers in improvisation.

DISCUSSION, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS LIMITATIONS, SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY AND CONCLUSION.

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The finding for research question one is that there is a high use of improvised materials by teachers in teaching biology in secondary school in Njikoka Urban of Anambra State. This is because the result from the data obtained has a mean of 2.71 that proves this. This result is in line with Adebinpe’s (1997) view on the use of improvisation.

research question two sought to find out the influence of improvised materials on teachers’ method of teaching in secondary school in Njikoka Urban of Anambra state. The finding revealed method adopted by the teacher. This view is so as result got from the data has a mean of 2.50 that proves the students’ interest in biology is highly motivated with the use of improvise materials. They understand more and also on the part of the teacher. This assertion is also in line with Stan annual conference proceedings of 1997 that improvised materials do not influence very positively student’s attitude towards biology in secondary schools in Njikoka Urban of Anambra state.

Research question three sought to determine the influence of improvised materials on student’s attitude in secondary Njikoka Urban of Anambra state. The result got from the data obtained has a mean of 2.42 that proves that students do not have a very positive attitude towards biology as a result of improvisation.

The research question three sought to determine to influence of improvised materials on students’ attitude in secondary schools in Njikoka Urban of Anambra state. The result got from the data obtained has a mean of 2.42 that proves that students do not have very positive towards biology as a result of improvisation.

The research question four sought to find out the preference of improvised materials over the standardized ones. The finding showed that both teachers and students do not prefer improvised materials to the standardized ones. The result got from the data obtained has a mean 2.41 that proves this. This could be due to the fact that improvised materials do not produce better results than the standardized ones. The study equally should in its finding that there is no significant difference between male and female teacher’s teaching method in improvisation in teaching biology the implication of this is that the method adopted by either the male or female teacher is not influence by the act of improvisation. Other wise, their methods can be effective with or without improvised materials the study also revealed that there is no significant difference in the activities of students that use improvised materials for their instruction for biology either that improvised laxly or the purchased standardized ones.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

The educational implications are:

That since improvised materials are used widely in secondary schools in Njikoka Urban of Anambra state, it is to encouraged improved teaching and learning.

Improvised materials increases interest and high performance in students and teachers; there by it is effective in the teaching and learning process of improvised materials create innovative skills, encourage team work and make teachers and students’ of improvisation is useful to increase students attention in biology education.

It is obtained that improvised materials don’t produce better or worse result than the standardized ones and it promotes teacher-student relationship which implies that it is a very good method for every teacher to understand his/her students very well.

RECOMMENDATIONS

From the result obtained from the data collected in this work I recommend that:

1. Teacher-students relationship should be boosted as it encourages the learner to rely and trust in the abilities of the teacher and also is ready to open-up to him/her.

2. Improvisation should be encouraged and show involve the learner actively since the rule of retention states that people retain more of what they hear, see and do.

3. The interest of the learner is captured and held during the process of improvisation and so will cause them to be able to create and improve on their own ideas so, improvisation of instructional materials should be done as often as possible.

4. Seminars and workshops should be organized from time to time to teach on the importance of improvisation.

5. Government, philanthropists and the P.T.A should contribute financially generously to the promotion of improvisation in secondary schools in Njikoka Urban.

LIMITATIONS

In the process of doing this project work, some of the limitation I had were.

1. Most of the teacher and students were not willing to fill the questionnaires I gave to them so I had to explain to different groups on how important their responses were before they agreed to fill.

2. Financially the work was a burden especially in distributing the questionnaires to the different schools, which are not closely situated.

3. Obtaining data from the state ministry of education was not very easy as it had to take days of “come back today, come back tomorrow”.

CONCLUSION

Improvised materials should not only be used or encouraged as useful models were application depends on change and circumstances but should be justified a strategy in such difficult times such as the one in which are it should be seen as a variable integral part of teaching even when the school budget is sufficient to cater for standardized materials. Commonly available materials can be care fully selected in order to make the teaching/learning easier.

Teaching And Learning – Effect Of Improvised Instructional material in teaching

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